Electrifying Incompatibilities in Japan


“Electricity is really just organized lightning.”  ~ George Carlin

“Genius hath electric power which earth can never tame.”  ~ Lydia M. Child quotes

I would wait more patiently for toast if the product was more...artistic.

I would wait more patiently for toast if the product was more…artistic.

“For the love of god,” I think to myself, “how long can the toaster actually take?!?”

Jody walks out of the bedroom, hair done, clothed, and made-up for work.  Her lunch is packed, hot tea ready for the drive in her go-cup, orange juice is poured, and the fried egg is still sizzling, although now resting off the heat of our gas stove.

She smiles at me, ready to eat.  Jody is a breakfast girl, and needs her protein in the morning to carry her through until lunch.  “Sorry Doll, waiting on the toast,” I mumble apologetically.  She fumbles getting her bag packed for work, while I attempt to will the toaster to conclusion by dirty looks and whatever telekinetic mental energies I may or may not possess.

Unlike me, Dragon Ball Z Cell's power is in little doubt....

Unlike me, Dragon Ball Z Cell’s power is in little doubt….

Our toaster can really take that long.

Find the only grounded outlets in our kitchen.

Find the only grounded outlets in our kitchen.

It may jolt you, but we have endured a plethora of electrically related issues living on the economy – and local power grid – in Okinawa.  First while the outlets here sometimes match American plugs (read more below than you probably care to about this “fit”), there are only two dual outlets in our living room, and two dual outlets in our dining area.  Of those, NONE are grounded; we have to use 3-to-2 prong adapters, which leaves our machines unprotected.  Of those outlets, one of the four is dedicated to our TV and other media devices, while another is dedicated to our computer and its peripheries.  That doesn’t leave much excess for, say, lighting, or, perhaps, a vacuum!

These plugs are compatible; too bad we hardly have any.

These plugs are compatible; too bad we hardly have any.

 

On a more positive charge, American-style three-prong grounded outlets are found in our kitchen in the guise of ONE quad outlet.  What light bulb failed to illuminate in the architect’s mind in distributing power, and then the right flavor of power?  At least on the other side of our u-shaped kitchen countertop is an ungrounded dual outlet.

A typical Japanese air conditioner...or electric toilet seat outlet.

A typical Japanese air conditioner…or electric toilet seat outlet.

And then the Japanese air conditioners and heated, electrical toilet seats (if we had them) plugs are all grounded in a very odd way:  the green grounding wire is not a third prong on the plug like we are used to, but rather a pigtail wire than is designed to be set into a specialized grounding screw on specially designed outlets for these rather ubiquitously eccentric Japanese items.  In other words, these specialized pieces of equipment required specialized outlets.

Perhaps we can turn to Pokémon as an alternate (and renewable) power source.

Perhaps we can turn to Pokémon as an alternate (and renewable) power source.

In a rather shocking twist (pun intended), I’ve discovered that Japan’s electric infrastructure is not very compatible…or well-designed, either on the micro or macro scale.  Electrifying Japan involves the use of TWO differing power grids.  Japan’s west operates at 60 hertz, while the eastern areas, including Tokyo and Fukushima (of the late radiological disaster fame), run on 50-hertz.

screen-shot-2011-04-01-at-8-12-52-am

What’s in a hertz, you ask?  Everything, when it comes to powering Japan.  But first, one of my favorite nerdy – and related jokes.  See below (snicker-snicker….).

Perhaps the best Dilbert strip, EVER.

Perhaps the best Dilbert strip, EVER.

The “one country, two systems” usually works fine, at least in terms of China keeping Hong Kong relatively unmolested.  In average times in Japan, there are enough power plants in each of the two independent grids that electricity can be shifted around within each grid if there are spikes in demand or temporary outages.  However, there is only a very limited amount of power that can be easily (and cheaply) transmitted across the 50-hertz/60-hertz continental divide, as it were.  Think of the two grids in Japan being separated by a giant electrified fence.

Even conservation is cute in Japan.

Even conservation is cute in Japan.

Plus, most electrical timing devices that are not dual-frequency ready rely specifically on their electrical feed’s frequency to physically measure the passage of time.  Think about how the Central Processing Unit (CPU) in your computer is characterized!  Things designed for higher frequencies literally slow down with lower power cycles.

map-japan-power-300

TheGreatWaveOffKanagawa-with-nuclear-reactor20120505_ASD001_0The real short in the circuit however recently sparked dramatic headlines in the unplanned and massive shortage of electrical power resulting from the destruction of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant and the subsequent abandonment of nuclear power throughout the country.  Creating the proper linkages between the 50-hertz and 60-hertz systems to meet demand and capacity is both expensive and time-consuming.  Limited movement of power between the partitioned national grids does exist, but not in the capacity to meet geographic demand.  Tokyo thus has suffered some rolling blackouts due to urban demand outstripping supply, but thankfully not nearly as extensive as predicted.

You just know that Godzilla is bound to get involved in the nuke debate....

You just know that Godzilla is bound to get involved in the nuke debate….

While power generation from nuclear energy has long-been a national Japanese priority, since the Fukushima accident in 2011, there has been a growing concern about the ability of Japan’s other nuclear plants to withstand both earthquakes and, in some cases, tsunamis due to frequent and substantial seismic activity.  For example, the Prime Minister at the time ordered another nuclear power plant (Hamaoka) shutdown based solely on the expectation of an earthquake of magnitude 8.0 or greater in the next 30 years.  Probably a good call.

2011-march-13--japan-tsunami-nuke-power-safety-600x402

Electricity Conservation Poster

Electricity Conservation Poster

Japan’s electrical demand plays out in the numbers:  Japan consumes 15% more than the European Union average…historically speaking.  It’s odd that for a country so ecstatic about brightly lit neon signs and building-sized LCD billboards continues to use both 50 and 60hz in a national split with no compelling technical reasoning behind the convention, along with no real apparent desire to standardize their domestic power grid, let along match that of other worldwide standards!

Personal conservation efforts are rather pointless in face of this conspicuous consumption.

Personal conservation efforts are rather pointless in face of this conspicuous consumption.

Electricity Conservation Poster

Electricity Conservation Poster

The incompatibility between the two grids in Japan is based solely on historical reasons.  The first purchases of generators for Japan were from two different companies, each with a diverse standard of electrical power.  Generators for Tokyo were purchased in 1895 from AEG, a German company loosely affiliated with Edison (50Hz).  However, in 1896, generators for Osaka were sourced from General Electric (60Hz).  Once those currents were in place, they continued to arc in incompatible ways throughout the rest of the Japan islands!

572px-Power_Grid_of_Japan_svg

What does this all mean about living in Okinawa?

Most of the older outlets in Japan (and Okinawa) remain non-polarized and ungrounded, which means the pins of an item’s plugs must be the same size, a convention that America discarded long ago.  In other words, plugs on our stuff have pins where one in significantly wider than the other.

ea6041_type_a_japenese

Some North American electrical devices work fine in Japan – if you are lucky enough to have polarized outlets that will accept the plugs.  However, certain items, specifically those involved in any type of heating (like our K-Cup machine, microwave, and iron!), may not work properly, but more often just work much slower.  Luckily for us, Okinawa happens to be on the 60Hz grid, so our timing-dependent stuff works just fine.  However, I would gladly trade a few hertz on my computer for quicker hot tea in the morning, or a microwave that can be literally 20% faster.

But don’t get me started on our toaster….

I don't care about brave.  I wish my toaster got hotter in Japan!

I don’t care about brave. I wish my toaster got hotter in Japan!

For more information and the primary sources I’ve used, please see the following:

Japan’s Electrical Bottleneck

Japan’s Nuclear Restart

http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2225.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utility_frequency

3 thoughts on “Electrifying Incompatibilities in Japan

  1. So this is super helpful, now that we know where we’re going 🙂 Looking forward to catching up and finally meeting your lovely bride!

  2. Yes finally. I can’t even think how many years it has been since I’ve seen you guys. I need to look up where this Army camp/fort is located…. BTW, add sowing machines to those things affected by the lower voltage. Jody was pretty frustrated with how slowly her machine was moving…at full speed. The Navy used to provide two transformers, but they no longer do. They are sold here, but Re costly. Perhaps look at bringing your own, unless you plan to live on base. Cheers!!

  3. The death by electrocution in Japan is lower than in the USA, so you can’t argue that not being grounded makes an appliance unsafe, if there is no conductible surface to arc onto, there is no point in grounding.

    Japanese electronics are safely designed to fail in a safe manner if there is an internal short.

    Japan’s grid system was also not designed by Americans, you might want to research some history instead of just assuming stuff in your own head (as a conceited American).

    Also when you claim it’s easy to just switch an entire half of the grid, this is not easy, if you actually used your brain and thought for a few seconds. First of all the half of the grid that has to switch over, would have to switch a lot of components over within it’s grid system, there is money.
    But most importantly, all the sensitive appliances people have within the side that changes, will have issues with these appliances, which would be a disaster, people don’t want to go out buying new stuff because the grid decided to change it’s frequency.

    BTW if you want to know the history of electricity in Japan, instead of just imagining stuff in your head. Here is the actual history of electricity in Japan, and why there are 2 systems.

    The first ever practical generator is invented by Belgium’s Zenobe Gramme in 1870 (no it wasn’t invented by America, grow up).

    The first ever electric arc lamp in Japan was lit in a Japanese university in 1878, it wasn’t lit or run by a foreigner, but instead from Japan’s scholars.

    1882, an arc lamp is lit in Tokyo streets. Electricity in Japan started for lighting means essentially.

    1886, the first ever Japanese electricity corporation is created, this is TEPCO essentially (but it originally had a different name).

    1887, several other Japanese power companies are created, like the Nagoya one, the Kyoto one, Osaka one etc.

    1888, Japan’s first hydroelectric power plant is made.

    1889, Osaka power company purchased an AC generator from the USA, this isn’t when the 60hz started however, this was a very basic generator.

    1895, the ancestor of TEPCO purchases superior German AC generators, they output 50hz. And no, Edison has nothing to do with this, Edison wasn’t even a pioneer for AC, and he didn’t have anything to do with AEG or European electricity (which predates America’s grid, again grow up).

    TEPCO’s 50hz German generators become the standard for eastern Japan.

    1896, Japan produces it’s own AC generators, these are 50hz systems made in eastern Japan, obviously modelled off the German generators.

    1897, Osaka power company purchases some GE generators from the USA, these run at 60hz and this is when the standard for western Japan’s grid being 60hz starts.

    BTW most of the entire world uses 50hz, the only reason western Japan is 60hz is because of buying some generators off the USA.
    BTW you must not understand how electricity works also, 60hz is not more power than 50hz. The hz is merely the amount of times the AC power is switching. The power itself is exactly the same.
    The reason your American appliances are underpowered in Japan has nothing to do with hertz, and everything to do with the fact that Japanese mains is 100v, where as American mains is 120v. Because of this, every American appliance will operate underpowered in Japan.
    And if you take sensitive Japanese appliances over to the USA and plug them in, many will literally be destroyed with the 20v rise, which will overheat components and destroy them as they will operate hotter than usual by drawing more power.

    As far as Okinawa, Japan wasn’t able to get the USA to hand back Okinawa until around 1971. As a result the history is a bit different in Okinawa, it appears you are assuming the history in Okinawa is similar to the rest of Japan (as an ignorant person, a little information is a dangerous thing).
    The USA certainly had heavy control in Okinawa, a destroyed small island that the USA ruled until around 1971, however this is nothing like the history of mainland Japan, gain an education please.

    In Okinawa there was no power generation, it was destroyed, the USA first used their own generators that burned fuel they brought in. The USA got sick of this and the USA in fact funded and built the first power station after the war in Okinawa in 1953.
    By 1965 the Japanese in Okinawa take over this as a private facility, the USA doesn’t stand in their way as the Japanese population were increasing in Okinawa and the private sector needed power generation, they would take over the power plants, but also make sure to supply the US bases with power as well. It became the standard Japanese 100v in Okinawa by this point, I think Americans on bases used transformers to possibly use their 120v things.

    In 1971 the Japanese government regains the island, which takes effect officially in 1972. The private Japanese power company there then joins the large Japanese group and falls into compliance with them.

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