Tragedy at Yonaguni Island

”Tragedy is a tool for the living to gain wisdom, not a guide by which to live.” ~Robert Kennedy

Life can be full of tragedy, but only if we make it that way.  Every once in a while, there comes along a heartbreaking tale that is almost too hard to believe.  This one I experienced on a remote Ryukyuan island, seemingly far from the harder toils of life.


Infamous Kuburabari can be found at the top-center of this rather animated map.

Kuburabari, located near the west tip of Yonaguni Island, is near to Kubura village.  An infamous gorge located there is about 60 feet long, 25-30 feet deep, with a width on top of about 10-15 feet.  In the age of the Ryukyu Dynasty, foreign rulers imposed a severe tax based on population throughout this island chain then under their control.  It is said that during these sad times, to avoid an unaffordable increase in population pregnant woman were made to attempt to leap the gorge, ensuring only the strongest mothers and by extension babies survived.  But more directly to the point, to ensure that most of the woman and fetuses didn’t survive the attempt….


Contemplating the Past

A terrible tale by any stretch of the imagination, something of which to be ashamed.  Perhaps that is why in more recent times the Yonaguni Island Board of Education has claimed the story to be only a local folk tale.  That said, Kubub Bari remains designated as an important prefectural scenic tourism spot, with signage explaining his haunted past, and with a small Buddhist altar located on-site.  Besides, there is always some measure of truth in folklore, else it wouldn’t exist.

When you visit however, you can take the edge of this sadder side of the site by going in the very late afternoon.  You see, the hill the gorge is sliced into also happens to be the last hill in Japan to see the sunset, being on the western portion of the most western island in all of Japan.


It is said that Satsuma and his clan were ultimately responsible for such a horrific outcome.  Based in the southernmost part of Kyushu, Japan and looking to rebuild their fortunes after defeats in the Japanese home islands, they built 100 warships to carry 3,000 samurai invaders to send to the Ryukyus.  Eleven years before the Mayflower arrived at Plymouth Port, the Satsuma battleships left on a mission of violence on February 6, 1609.

Satsuma’s troops took over Nakijin Castle on Okinawa, then burned it to the ground as they slaughtered the local peoples they encountered on their way to capital city and castle of Shuri.  On April 1, 1609, Satsuma’s invaders rushed into Shuri Castle. Then Ryukyuan King Sho Nei was arrested and the Kingdom’s treasure and important official documents were stolen.  The Ryukyu Kingdom suddenly came under the control of Satsuma.

Ships of the Type Used by Satsumo

Ships of the Type Used by Satsuma

Removing the deposed Sho Nei and his ministers to Edo (modern-day Tokyo), Satsuma was free to prepared a wholly one-sided treaty, which was imposed on the King’s offices by force.   The Ryukyu’s “Golden Age” of peaceful self-rule had suddenly turned into a Dark Age under Satsuma colonization.  For the next 270 long years, the people of the Ryukyus suffered under Satsuma’s control, paying heavy taxes and impossible tribute to their new, brutal rulers.

Invasion of the Ryukyu Kingdom in the 17th Century

Invasion of the Ryukyu Kingdom in the 17th Century

All the Kingdom’s people between 15 and 50 years of age now had to pay taxes.  Some tales talk about a “head tax” (jinto-zei) rather than age.  In some villages in the Yaeyama islands (southern-most islands in the Ryukyu chain), stone pillars can still be found by which children were measured; once over the stone’s reach, taxes were to be imposed.  To make things easier, Satsuma blamed the taxes on the deposed King, and claimed to have come to the rescue of the peoples of the Ryukyu Kingdom.   Obviously, these lies and shams became rather obvious when the taxes were never lifted or eased, and, in fact, were not abolished until 1903 and only after a strong petition from the local peoples once under Japanese formal rule starting in 1879.

On Yonaguni Island, some claim that is was Satsuma himself who introduced sad and inhumane methods of population control.  One method was Tonguda, the rice paddy located at the center of the island.  Periodically, all islanders between ages 15 and 50 had to dash to the paddy on some signal, and those who couldn’t get there in a set amount of time were beheaded.  Obviously this most effected the physically handicapped, injured and sick….


Placard explaining the rocks and small Buddhist altar at far right

yonaguni-2017-kubura-bari-the-jumping-point-for-sadnessyonaguni-2017-kubura-bari-rocks-to-jump-acrossAnother, more infamous method was the one detailed here:  killing of pregnant women.  Periodically, all pregnant women of the island were forced to line up on one side of the Kuburabari ravine.  They were then ordered to attempt to hurdle the ravine by jumping to the other side.  Of course attempting to leap a gap of 10-15 feet was mostly impossible for women in such a state, and most of them died after bashing against the rock of the opposite side and falling deep into the ravine.  If that is not bad enough, there are claims that most of those women who miraculously succeeded their leap of faith ended up suffering miscarriages.  The islanders usually had to pay their taxes in food (mostly rice), and only by reducing the number of mouths to feed could the taxes be afforded.  Similarly, Satsuma realized he could receive maximum tribute if he were to “help” control population.


Sadly, there is only the smallest memorials altar placed at the site.  Although there is tourist parking and signage explaining the nature of the area, they are as much about observing the sunset here as remembering a darker time.  It seems in a formal sense that Japanese officials have ignored and discarded this shameful history as simple island myths and legends not to be taken literally.


But the truth is always somewhere in the middle.  For me, myth and legend do not exist in a vacuum.  And I would rather say a silent prayer for all those lost here, rather than ignore the possibilities.  Rather than to act as our guide in life, tragedy can rather result in wisdom for life.


Intimidation: Shisa of Okinawa

 “Straightforwardness intimidates people. They prefer the veneer, despite what they claim.”  ~ Donna Lynn Hope 

This is NOT an Intimidating Shisa

This is NOT an Intimidating Shisa

Intimidation,” the artist said upon walking up as he noticed me admiring a large set of traditionally styled and fired clay Okinawan Shisa dogs. “That what I call,” he continued in very broken English, still much better than my skoshi Japanese.

There is a story surrounding both Okinawan Shisa lion-dogs and the ones Jody “owed” me from so poorly mistreating the ones I brought home from Okinawa back in 2001. See The Cat-Dogs of Okinawa for that back-story. Long story short: Jody thought the dogs were rather creepy, and relegated the indoor set I had to the harsh Pensacola outdoors for the 2+ years I lived with her before moving to Okinawa. Needless to say, I have been looking intently for just the right set, without much luck since coming to Okinawa in the summer of 2013.

My dated - and damaged - set of Shisa from 2001

My dated – and damaged – set of Shisa from 2001

Jody, since moving to Okinawa and seeing just how ubiquitous these protectors are in this corner of the Far East, had finally come around to the idea of the lion-dogs as effective spiritual guards of the household. She finally, in the last few months, moved past favoring the “cuter” stylized dogs portrayed in more playful stances, lacking the teeth-filled grimaces of the more frightening lions. And she knew that I really wanted a uniquely Okinawan set, a pair of guardians that we could take with us from the Far East to wherever we happened to hang our hats.

Now to get Jody past her dislike of hats. But that’s for another story….

Jody really does look so cute in hats!

Jody really does look so cute in hats!

Camp Foster, one of the really large Marine Corps bases here on Okinawa, was holding a Spring Festival this past April, where the Marine Corps invited onto base a whole host of Okinawan vendors who could offer a wide variety of wares for perusal and purchase. The Festival started on Friday, and continued over the rest of the weekend at the base’s field house, a huge facility which ended up being filled with more product and crafts then we expected.

We stopped by late Friday afternoon, after attending a rather sad memorial service for one of Jody’s co-worker’s untimely demise. As you might imagine, we weren’t in the best frame of mind to do some serious shopping. However, to ease our troubled spirits, we decided to grab some comfort food and take a slow walk around, taking in all that the vendors had to offer. There was some Tibetan furniture that immediately caught our eye, and we engaged the vendor is some light haggling, something so common in the Far East but almost wholly missing on Okinawa. See Opportunity Knocks for more on our previous purchases from this Korean family.

We continued on and found other interesting Okinawan crafts, and decided that we would return the next day and take a longer gander at the merchandise on offer.

But then we spotted them. The dogs. The ones that immediately caught my eye.

Okinawa Shisa 2015, Shisa purchase intimidation WM

They were large, expensive, and yes, intimidating. And there didn’t appear to be any wiggle room on the price….

We returned the next day, and the two Tibetan items that we were clearly interested in had been sold, and at prices that were offered to us the previous evening. We had learned the hard lesson of Okinawa once again: if you see a unique item of the Far East that speaks to you, get it while you can. We rounded the facility again, where Jody bought some rather large antique kokeshi dolls. And we again stopped by to revisit the Shisa that had so captured my imagination.

Okinawa Shisa 2015, Shisa purchase intimidation face 2 WM

The vendor was, and I’m sure this is a loose translation, Soul (Soulful Handwork Pottery Art). The Potter, Sano Toshio, is one of the more acclaimed on the island which still uses the old traditional Okinawan ways of pottery. He has won numerous awards, including the highest prize at the 2014 Okinawa Prefecture Craft Pubic Exhibition. His work can be seen at his personal website and the shop’s blog.

The dogs are at once intimidating. Their stance is one in which they are ready to fight, ready to pounce with teeth frighteningly displayed along with their fixed stare. They are made in and using traditional Okinawan ways, finished with highly stylized twists and turns, lacking the refined finishing and glazes of what many westerners consider higher-end pottery. Until very recently I had not favored such earthenware, but have come to really appreciate such works as truly and only Okinawan. These examples were actually perfect.

Okinawa Shisa 2015, Shisa purchase intimidation 2 WM

But still that price. I wasn’t ready to spend so much money on something I could see being broken on yet another military move back to the states. We left that Saturday afternoon, and decided to return Sunday to take one last look around.

Unlike the furniture and some other items we were potentially interested in the days prior, the dogs were still there. It appeared Sano-san wasn’t moving much product, so perhaps he would be more willing to drop his price. But I had also had a change of heart. In the last 24 hours I really thought about the idea of value, about what was worth an expenditure of treasure and what wasn’t. For example, we didn’t hesitate to spend large sums on travel. And for specialized scuba diving equipment that allows for deeper and longer explorations of the deep. In such context, the price becomes not just tolerable, but congruent with the valued offered by such works of art.

Okinawa Apr 2015, New Shisa, Shisa purchase intimidation face WM

Intimidation resides safely in our home. As treasured Okinawan customary works of art they are impossible not to admire. But it is only in their physically menacing presence that the moving power of these protectors can be truly felt. It’s hard to put a price on protection.

See more Okinawan Shisa dogs in my Flickr photo-stream here.

Fortunes of Cambodia

“Oh Rollo, if you truly knew what the gods have in store for you, you would go down now and dance naked on the beach. (LAUGHING)” ~Seer’s oracle, The Vikings

The fortune-teller glanced down and stated to silently read my prophesy. And just as quickly as he started, he immediately slammed the small booklet of Khmer palm-leaf writings shut.

“No good,” flatly said Thalay, our Cambodian tour guide, without any further explanation or elucidation.

“Well that’s not good, not good at all,” I thought to myself. Good thing I had two more choices at my fortune’s revelation!

Entry into the Silver Pagoda Compound

Entry into the Silver Pagoda Compound

We were visiting the Silver Pagoda, located adjacent to the Royal Palace in Cambodia’s capital, Phnom Penh. A couple of lessor shrines here specialize in fortune-telling, a common belief throughout the Far East, and I was eager to indulge myself.

The Library Adjacent to the Silver Pagoda

The Library Adjacent to the Silver Pagoda

Cambodia 2015, Phnom Penh, Silver Pagoda, burial stupa WMWe watched as a young, well-dressed man received his fortune. The teller was located in small library just outside of the Silver Pagoda proper. Here were stored many old and historic Buddhist manuscripts written on palm leaves using Sanskrit, preserved in glass-faced cabinets, which were also lined with more modern translations in bound books. Thalay explained to us that this student was here to get his fortune regarding the future of his studies. Apparently, and unlike me, he got a fairly good one.

And on his first choice. Lucky.

Palm Leave Fortunes

Palm Leave Fortunes

Cambodia 2015, Phnom Penh, Royal Palace and Silver Pagoda, Khmer rooflines 2 WMPalm leaves have been used for millennia both for writing and painting because of their thin and flexible qualities. From the first millenia up to the 16th centuries, manuscripts were written on palm leaves called Tādapatra. They provide an excellent surface for writing which is easily preserved and transported as rolled bundles. The rolled palm leaf manuscripts here were stored in small boxes, themselves placed inside modern steel and glass cabinets to further protect them from dust, dirt and thieves.

Cambodia 2015, Phnom Penh, Royal Palace and Silver Pagoda, Khmer rooflines WM

The mystic had a small bundle of fortunes written on palm leaves but in the more modern Khmer script. The leaves were bound top and bottom by a hard covering of bamboo, and the entire collection was held together with what appeared to be a hemp-like cord.

Clarity & Focus before Fortune-Telling

Clarity & Focus before Fortune-Telling

Before my first attempt it was explained that one must clear their minds entirely and focus on the one thing for which the fortune would apply. On my knees in front of a sacred bull, I closed my eyes, bowed my head and took a few deep cleansing breathes to help clear my thoughts. Then I started to hone my mental energies in order to focus the fortune’s predictions.

Cambodia 2015, Phnom Penh, Royal Palace and Silver Pagoda, Buddha's Tripitaka, sacred bull closeup WM

Cambodia 2015, Phnom Penh, Royal Palace and Silver Pagoda, metal-worked gate WMI wished to know the prospects for my health in the coming years. Last May, almost exactly a year previous to this fortune-telling, I had started to become very seriously ill (see Offshore Okinawa: A Scuba Diver’s Paradise to Lose). And my condition, one which I will remain “stuck” with over time, is also one for which the Western medical establishment has no clear answers…or cures. When I felt my mental energies were sufficiently engaged and fixated, I was ready for my second attempt at better providence.

The Silver Pagoda and a Stupa

The Silver Pagoda and a Stupa

Cambodia 2015, Phnom Penh, Royal Palace and Silver Pagoda, Khmer spire WMThe Silver Pagoda is a small walled compound adjacent to the Cambodian Royal Palace complex, both located in the busy riverside district of Cambodia’s capital, Phnom Penh. It features a royal temple commonly referred to as Wat Preah Keo (Khmer: វត្តព្រះកែវ), which houses many national treasures, most notably the Emerald Buddha of Cambodia, a small 17th century baccarat crystal Buddha, as well as a near-life-size standing Buddha figurine encrusted with 9,584, diamonds dressed in royal regalia. The Pagoda itself is inlaid with more than 5,000 silver floor tiles, most of which remained covered for their protection.

Cambodia 2015, Phnom Penh, Silver Pagoda Buddha's Tripitaka, Kevin picking another fortune WM

This time I placed the bundles of fortunes on my head as I saw the student do. Attached to the bundle via a worn and fibrous string was a small wooden dowel, which is used to select the fortune in question.

“You can use your left hand,” said Thalay. I was using my right hand to do the choosing. After thinking about her somewhat odd comments, it suddenly dawned on me. Maybe I was doing it wrong.

“You mean I should use my left hand?” “Yes,” came her reply with a smile. Ah, perhaps I had discovered the cause of the first fortune failure. At least that’s what I chose to believe.

Cambodia 2015, Phnom Penh, Silver Pagoda Buddha's Tripitaka, Kevin picking a fortune WM

I select my fortune and hand it over to the seer. He silently reads the fortune. And continues reading for quite some time. I look at the palm leaf, and this fortune is quite long; the beautiful twists and twirls of the Khmer language written small and without margins right to the edge. I attempt to read his tells during his contemplation, and I’m struck that again he is not happy. I turn to Thalay and give her a rather pleading look.

After an extended discussions with the fortune-teller, Thalay starts to give me her interpretation. I can tell that this is not easy for her, and she is struggling with an explanation after two or three false starts. Finally, after even more discussion with the oracle, she comes up with this analogy:

Cambodia 2015, Phnom Penh, Silver Pagoda Buddha's Tripitaka, fortunes WM

“It is not good, but not bad,” she starts, obviously trying to diffuse the growing anxiety that she clearly sees on my face. “It is like this: a fisherman can work hard all the day all his life, and at the only short time that he relaxes, the fish he wants swims by….”

Now for my third attempt. And my last. I took a few extra moments to center my mind and spirit. And again I take my chances with the bundle of what has only been, for me, bad or sad news. I turn over my choiced chance to the soothsayer.

Cambodia 2015, Phnom Penh, Silver Pagoda Buddha's Tripitaka, fortunes and the fortune teller WM

This time the slightest of a smile comes across his face. So, either he is amused at my exceedingly bad luck over three attempts, or actually I finally found a fortune worth having. What was it this time?

Well, after another difficult translation, it apparently comes down to this: that what I seek will require a life-long struggle, one that is fated to be not easy over time, and that will require the active support of my wife Jody. Jody, Thalay and I all make light of the situation, finding the obvious humor in having my health in the hands of my nurse-wife (literally – she’s a nurse). But of course, for me, in the recesses of the darker parts of my consciousness, this resonates true.  Maintaining my health may not be easy as I age, but with Jody’s help I will in fact keep aging.  Which is a good thing.

Cambodia 2015, Phnom Penh, Silver Pagoda Buddha's Tripitaka, fortune teller checking my fortune again WM

Most of us are drawn to having our fortunes predicted, as it has been throughout time. Almost everyone at some time or another wishes to know the Kismet with which we have been blessed…or cursed, and have the opportunity to confront the unchangeable fate to which we are bound.

But most of the time, it’s better to not openly know. Let the gods plan and scheme; we, like the Viking Rollo, simply strive to make the most of the lot we have drawn, waiting for our destinies to take hold. We never really know what the gods have in store.  We should dance naked anyhow.

Cambodia 2015, Phnom Penh, Silver Pagoda, Cambodian greeting and show of respect WM


Tashmioo’s Tomb: Please Pray for Him

“A tomb now suffices him for whom the whole world was not sufficient.” ~Greek Proverb

“We know little of the things for which we pray.” ~Geoffrey Chaucer

Tashimoo's Tomb

Tashimoo’s Tomb

“Tashimoo,” the large white sign, sized and placed to be easily seen from the frequently traveled road on Torii Station, began. “Please pray at this blacksmith’s tomb because he made tools for farmers.”

I had driven by this “tomb” probably at least 50 times, and with each pass, my curiosity grew. Who was this blacksmith, and who was responsible for placing and maintaining this sign on an active United States Army station? And where exactly was his tomb at this site? All it appeared to be was a small rise in the ground, serving as root foundation for a very large shade tree and associated sub-tropical jungle.

Deciding to stop and explore his resting place on foot, I realize that this tomb appears to be very old, and basically has been reclaimed by nature. Oddly situated next to a modern American style gas station where a woman was loudly vacuuming her car, I can find no real trace of what I would consider an Okinawan tomb, at least not like those ubiquitous turtle-back mausoleums seen all over the island.

Okinawan Turtleback Tombs (Yomitan)

Okinawan Turtleback Tombs (Yomitan)

Turtle-back tombs are exactly one of those things that make Okinawa…oh so Okinawan. They line hillsides along the coasts, prime property for what in essence are neighborhoods of the dead. But they are not seen in other parts of Japan; they were introduced only in the Ryukyus through Okinawa’s long and prosperous seafaring tradition with China.

Turtle-back tombs or turtle shell tombs (Japanese: 亀甲墓, kamekō-baka) are a particular type of tomb commonly found in some coastal areas of China’s Fujian Province and in Japan’s Ryūkyū Islands. In the original Chinese form, the tomb main chamber’s roof is made to look like the carapace of a tortoise. A vertical stone tombstone bearing the name of the deceased is placed where the turtle’s head would be, and serves as the “door” access to the burial vault.

Smaller, More Literal Turtle Tombs in  China

Smaller, More Literal Turtle Tombs in China

In the Ryūkyūan island chain, the turtle-back tombs are thought to have been introduced from China in the late 17th or early 18th century, but there are academic claims that reach back to their origins in Okinawa to the 15th century. The Ryūkyūan version has the same overall shape and layout, but on a much grander scale. Whereas in China the tombs are for individuals, in Okinawa the enhanced size of the body of the “tortoise” serves most often as a family tomb.

Why a turtle? In China, the turtle has long been considered a sacred animal. The reptile’s shape, with its flat plastron (the belly of the turtle) below and its domed carapace above, is said to represent the universe, at least as it appeared to ancient Chinese. But the interpretation in the Ryukyus has the tomb shaped to resemble a woman’s womb. One of the Eastern Buddhist ideas surrounding death is that it is only another form of rebirth, or a means of returning from whence you came.

Turtle-Back (China) or Womb (Okinawa) Interpretation

Turtle-Back (China) or Womb (Okinawa) Interpretation

Okinawa 2015, Kadena Tombs, broken burial urns WMOkinawa 2015, Kadena Tombs, overgrown and reclaimed WMBy the 20th century, the turtleback tomb became the predominant burial chamber in most of the Ryūkyū Islands. These tombs contain a burial vault, where bones of many generations of a particular family could repose. In the long-standing tradition of burial in Okinawa, a coffin and body are placed in the central part of the tomb and the vault is sealed with a massive stone. The newly deceased remains there for some number of years until wholly decomposed. At that point, the bones would be washed, usually by young female relatives of the deceased, placed into a large earthenware vessel, and stored on shallow tiered shelves lining the back and sides of the vault’s interior based on seniority. Larger tombs offer up to 150 square feet of burial space.

Preserved Tombs on Kadena AFB

Preserved Tombs on Kadena AFB

Okinawa 2015, Kadena Tombs, large shaded tomb WMOkinawa 2015, Kadena Tombs, overgrown tomb WMThere are large preserved tombs on Kadena AFB, complete with placarded information. Stopping there one day, I find a substantial picturesque tomb and a brief, generalized explanation describing the aged, intriguing structure. Although the signage claimed that the tombs were still being utilized today, a closer inspection of their interiors clearly shows that no one is home, living or dead. I can only imagine, perhaps, that the family was whipped out in totality during the Typhoon of Steel which occurred here back in 1945….

Empty Tombs

Empty Tombs

WWII Intelligence on Okinawan Tombs

WWII Intelligence on Okinawan Tombs

That spring, during the Battle of Okinawa, many Okinawan civilians sought refuge from naval and air bombardment of the island inside their ancestors’ tombs (as they also do for typhoons). Later, many of these tombs were also used by the Imperial Japanese defenders of the islands in essence as reinforced fighting positions. (See Turtle Back Tombs for an excellent overview of the role the tombs played in WWII) Pre-invasion military analysis of Okinawa included instructions on the explosive firepower required to destroy such tombs. When you consider the propensity of the Japanese to use the tombs in military roles, grave danger emanated from the literally thousands of turtlebacks that dotted the island of Okinawa.

Militarized Tombs 2

Okinawan Tomb along the Hiji River showing scares of War

Okinawan Tomb along the Hiji River showing scares of War

14560717418_1a6bcfc297_bUnfortunately, war often presents just such dilemmas: should the destruction of local culturally significant sites be avoided at the risk of increased casualties, or should they be leveled to discourage their use and save as many of the invasion force as possible? The way it went, it is the Okinawan people who suffered most. And doubly so. The Japanese, who cared nothing for the welfare of the Okinawan people, occupied, militarized, and sacrificed this island chain as a way to simply slow the Americans down on their march northward to the Japanese homeland. The Japanese were directly responsible for the destruction of almost every important Okinawan cultural relic, either by their own hand or by placing such sites in the crosshairs of the American invasion force. The desecration of tombs – many which were destroyed on the mere suspicion of being military strongholds or hideouts – was a terrible and lasting affront to the Okinawans.

Shiimii Observance at a Family Tomb

Shiimii Observance at a Family Tomb

In Okinawa, where highly superstitious and spiritually attuned people actively engage in ancestor worship, the tomb is not only a place for resting the dead, but a place of tangible joy and transcendent comfort for the living.  One such event is known as Shiimii. Each spring at the beginning of the third Lunar month (the Okinawans still use the traditional Chinese measure of time to mark cultural events) Okinawans participate in memorial services of a sort for their ancestors. But these observances are much less solemn that you might think. The practice is, of course, based on Chinese traditions passed along to the Ryukyus with the Chinese tombs. During this festivity, blood relatives gather at tombs in a family reunion, but one which includes both the living and the dead. The entire site is cleaned and neatened; weeds are pulled, trees are trimmed, bushes cut back and debris and trash removed. Irritated forebears, upset at the tidiness of their eternal home, are believed to cause illness or even death when their descendants don’t take good care of the family tomb or participate in important annual ceremonies which take place there. See Banzai for more on the rituals and rites of honoring the dead in Okinawa.

Buddha Standing Guard

Buddha Standing Guard

Once the site is presentable, a brief ceremony is held which includes prayers and the burning of imitation paper money for the dead to use in the coming year. Then a picnic is enjoyed at the tomb. Family members unpack special Okinawan ceremonial foods like mochi, fruits and pork, along with beer, saké and awamori. Offerings are made first to the resident ancestors, and then the extended family consumes the rest graveside. Children are seen laughing and playing while the adults appreciate their adult beverages. Often a strummed sanshin, the traditional Okinawa three-string instrument, offers a musical background where time-honored folk songs are sung in hogen, the local dialect. This joyous time, one which strengthens and reaffirms kinship and ancestral ties, is cherished by the Okinawans.

Modern Gable-Style Tomb

Modern Gable-Style Tomb

But there’s less and less of the turtleback tombs being constructed on Okinawa. More recent trends, given the exorbitant cost of purchasing land and building large kamekō-baka are to build gables, smaller tombs that more resemble a shrine or small home than animal. And given the reduced floor space available, cremation is now the norm.

Scattered Earthenware and Bones

Scattered Earthenware and Bones

Tashimoo's Tomb

Tashimoo’s Tomb

Okinawa Apr 2015, Tori Blacksmith Grave, bones shells and urn fragmentsTashimoo, the blacksmith of Yomitan, had neither. His tomb is crudely formed by stacked chunks of ancient coral. Moving up into the manmade elements of his hillside grave, I spy fragments of earthenware and what appears to be bone fragments, possibly animal, but maybe not, scattered in a leveled area immediately against a small coral wall. The site, adjacent to a busy road serving the base’s gas station and across the street from the construction site where the new base headquarters is going to be, is quite shaded and tranquil.

Tashimoo's Tomb

Tashimoo’s Tomb

And he still has people stopping to pray. In my few moments of silent contemplation of this man’s life – and death – I focus the very nature of his tomb and the fascinating Okinawan interpretation of the circle of life. And I reach a necessary conclusion.

Tashimoo's Tomb

Tashimoo’s Tomb

We all can only hope to be as lucky to be so well-remembered.

What Does the Fox Say: Kyoto’s Fushimi-Inari Shrine

What does the fox say? It says it all – silently – at the Fushimi-Inari-Taisha Shinto Shrine, one of the most impressive visits one could make in all of Kyoto.


14060715578_2141ddd704_bFoxes (kitsune), regarded as messengers of Inari, play important roles at Inari shrines. Like the song that went viral, there are hundreds of stone foxes scattered and hidden across the Fushimi Inari complex. Often they are depicted holding a granary key in their mouths, visual symbolism reflecting Inari as the protector of rice and cereals, a role so revered in ancient Japan that foxes are often referred to themselves as Inari.


With endless expanses of crimson-colored wooden torii (See Trampled Torii for more on those iconic contours of the Far East) layered amongst a wooded and peaceful mountain spared from the city’s urban sprawl, the massive religious complex offers an escape to a spiritual world unto its own.


14328992688_f96798e4a7_bJF4_029682Yes, it’s a Shinto Shrine. But this place is oh so much more. Ancient. Mysterious. Moving. Immense. Describing it as “just another shrine” would be like saying that the Vatican is just another church…. What Fushimi-Inari encompasses is an entire realm of various shrines large and small, nestled amid thousands of torii, all spread across an entire mountain just outside Kyoto proper. For me and Jody, our repeat visits to the shrine – during the day and at night – are some of our more memorable adventures in our flirtations to date anywhere in the Far East. It not only ranks as one of the most impressive sites in Kyoto, but it’s one of the most important to the Japanese people who live there. See Honeymoon’s Atomic Fireworks Saves Kyoto for more on what makes this locality so special.


Fushimi Inari Taisha (伏見稲荷大社) is the lead shrine of Inari. Situated at the base of Inari Mountain, the complex consists of four major religious areas along with dozens and dozens of sub-shrines and alters winding through numerous trails spanning over 2.5 mils and ascending to the mountain’s peak 725 feet above.


14801914150_8fc1376c87_b 14766524022_1a6a317b62_bInari was initially dedicated to the gods of rice and sake in 8th century Japan. But as the role of agriculture diminished, the Inari deities were repurposed more broadly as protectors of business and commerce. Thus, the guardian spirit or god Inari became the patron of business. Since times distant merchants and manufacturers have traditionally worshipped Inari. This explains, in fact, the shear and almost uncountable number of torii located here, of which over 10,000 are said to be standing. Each has been donated and inscribed by a Japanese business or business person thankful for their prosperity and in the hopes of gaining additional favor with the gods for the future. The resulting long tunnels of torii are some of the most iconic visions in Japan; the torii.


14056204387_14037f94ec_bThe earliest structures were built in 711 CE, but were re-located in 816 to the present-day site. However, the main shrine structures we see today were all built around the 14-15th centuries, including the main gate (楼門, rōmon, “tower gate”), and the main shrine (御本殿, go-honden). Today the shrine, one of the earliest Shinto Shrines in Japan, is the country’s most popular, most visited, and serves as headquarters for some 40,000 Inari shrines scattered throughout Japan.


Interspersed along the shrine’s paths, small food stands serve Kitsune Udon (“Fox Udon”), a noodle soup topped with pieces of aburaage (fried tofu), a treat favored by foxes. You can also try Inari sushi, fried tofu wrapped around sweetened rice.


The hike around the shrines long and crossing paths is impressive to each and every sense. Light plays with the torii tunnels during the day….. But it is in the late afternoon and throughout the night where it takes an eerie and more spiritually moving turn. There in shadows of the descending day, the small graveyards, miniaturized shrines and silent alters take on a mysterious air.

Leaving our own Ema

Leaving our own Ema

14041109430_846d3c1c88_b14041146147_28a3f9dc03_bThe Japanese, being a very superstitious people, hold that the Inari shrines are possessed by foxes at night. While foxes are generally seen has sacred and benign, they also are known to be somewhat mischievous – as foxes are everywhere) – especially at night. Jody and I, just to be safe and in the hopes of avoiding any accidental mammalian-based bewitching, visited together, even though the bitter cold of the night was calling Jody back to our lukewarm Machiya in Kyoto’s Gion District (read Timeless Townhouse for more on our stay at a traditional Geisha home at the turn of the last century). For the record, Jody was a foxy lady even prior to our visit.


We recommend that, if possible, a visit to the shrine should be timed for the very late afternoon, when the crowds start to fade along with the harsh light of the day. The chance to explore the torii tunnels alone in the tranquil forests is both spiritually moving and all-things romantic. Having these sites and sights to yourselves is simply a magical experience.


“The secret of the fox, Ancient mystery, Somewhere deep in the woods, I know you’re hiding…My guardian angel….” ~ The Fox – What Does the Fox Say?


See my Flickr Set “Kyoto” for more photos of our visit to that iconic Japanese city.


Far Eastern X Files: The Yonaguni Monument

A Terrific Free-Diver’s View of the Yonaguni Monument 

“Ooooooooh-Kay, let’s go diving!” our Japanese divemaster from Yonaguni Diving Service (YDS) says in his passable but heavily accented English.

Cheers go up from the eleven of us congregated across the stern of the dive boat, all in great anticipation of this, our first dive not just in Yonaguni but on the famous (or infamous) Yonaguni Monument. Standing on the top rung of the boarding ladder, I can see the mysterious structure looming just there in deep, visible here and there as the waves play peek-a-boo with their shifting patches of blue-black darkness and bright blue refractions.

Dive Briefing

Dive Briefing

“Ichi…,” he calls once cleared by the boat’s Captain, and continues, “…Ni…SAN!!”  On “three” our our leader disappears backwards into the water. The rest of us are not far behind.

The group descends immediately and conducts a rough rendezvous at about 60’, surrounded by giant stones which, at first and quick glance from afar, seemed to broadcast the tell-tale marks of the hand of man. Signaling all okay, our tour of the underwater “ruins” begins.

Me Coming Through "The Gate"

Me Coming Through “The Gate”

Jody at the Gate's Exit

Jody at the Gate’s Exit

Yonaguni Japan 2015, Scuba Diving, Monument, titan step WM“This is Gate,” our divemaster has written on his underwater slate in good, clear English. He points to an opening in a rock face, at first hidden in the early morning shadows, but clearly there. It is an oppressively small opening, just large enough for divers to swim through, and swim through we all do in a follow-the-leader way, making sure pictures are taken of our emergence into the Monument proper. “That wasn’t’ carved,” I think to myself, and note that it didn’t even appear to have been “constructed,” although many claim it to be an arched gateway entry into the complex. If so, the ancient residents there were taller than leprechauns.

Emerging from the Gate, We have Arrived!

Emerging from the Gate, We have Arrived!

Yonaguni Japan 2015, Scuba Diving, Monument, twin rocksYonaguni Japan 2015, Scuba Diving, Monument, Jody checking out the twin columns 2 WMOnce “inside” the complex, we immediately are faced with the “Twin Towers,” sometimes called “columns.” They are not columns, but very large slabs of stone, roughly matched in size and orientation. They are indeed pretty good representations of rectangles, probably about 20 feet (or more) long, and they are more or less aligned with each other, with only a couple of inches of gap between. Images of Stonehenge dance in my mind, and for an instant, I could envision some astrological purpose for such design and placement given their odd resting angle. Or could it be that fractured rock just happen to fall and get wedged in this position??

Jody with the Twin Towers

Jody with the Twin Towers

Yonaguni Japan 2015, Scuba Diving, Monument, terraces WMYonaguni Japan 2015, Scuba Diving, Monument, Jody swims for the boat over the monument WMWe round a corner and start to fight the famous Yonaguni current. The waves can be seen crashing against the stones on the surface just overhead. And turning the corner we come face to face with the Monument’s “terrace,” an awe-inspiring sight for anyone, believer or skeptic. Straight lines, sharp angles, and flat surfaces all too perfect to have been formed by Mother Nature alone are all right there, a feast for the eyes. Yes, I do so want to believe. Thinking about similar ruins around the world, one wants to believe that there is an Asian counterpart to Maya temples or the ziggurats of Sumer, or even Atlantis!

Me on the Way Down to the Monument

Me on the Way Down to the Monument

But there’s other magic here besides the possibility of undiscovered ancient civilizations. There are optical illusions, which are often the case in water. Water absorbs colors in natural sunlight very quickly; passing about 30 feet, most of the red, yellow and orange in sunlight is already gone. The dark blues, purples and greens remain, and do well to hide imperfections, much as wearing black does for the movie stars. Sure, from a distance stones seem to be clearly carved and overly ordered, but from up close, this often-taunted “perfection” blurs with the very edges and angles of the rock, themselves covered in fuzzy biological growth that helps complete the illusion from afar.

Group Photo on "The Turtle"

Group Photo on “The Turtle”

Yonaguni Japan 2015, Scuba Diving, Monument, hovering over the turtle

The Only Turtle I Saw on the Monument....

The Only Turtle I Saw on the Monument….

We come to a shallow point of the ruins referred to as “The Turtle.” Loitering there as a group, I admire the stone formation, but have a very hard time seeing a turtle. In the most abstract sense it is there, but then again…. Turtles have a long and symbolic history in Okinawan history, with even the earth being carried on one’s back. But what appears from a distance to be a carving is really a stretch of anyone’s imagination. Initially the turtle’s head seems to be a finely carved symmetrical triangle with a sharp point, a rarity in nature. That triangular head is matched by another triangular notch in the stone terrace just below, evidence of uncanny alignment.

Japanese Dive Map

Japanese Dive Map

But again, King Neptune and Poseidon’s light show in the underwater world create illusions. The “triangle” is, in fact, pretty well deformed, particularly on one side. And those notches so well aligned? They are not: actually offset from one another, the only alignment comes from a shared fault line in the stone, clear to even the most casual observer upon closer more objective inspection.

Group Photo on a Monument Terrace

Group Photo on a Monument Terrace

After 30 minutes our air supplies are running low. Fighting the wicked currents blowing across the stone (could the currents be responsible for grinding down the flat surfaces over time??) has taken its toll on the dive group, already lower on air than normal since we’re all using smaller scuba cylinders that are standard throughout Japan.

Climbing Back Aboard

Climbing Back Aboard

We surface and our dive boat backs down on the group to pluck us out of the surging sea, crashing up against the rock just tens of meters away. Looking at the islands cliff face just above the monument’s location, I can’t help but see clear resemblance in the stone. Or could it be that a manmade temple complex sank into the ocean in some ancient cataclysmic event lost to time?

“So,” Jody asks once we are back on board the boat and breaking down our gear, “what do you think?”

The Turtle Head's sloppy geometry and clear fracture lines are clearly evident here....

The Turtle Head’s sloppy geometry and clear fracture lines are clearly evident here….

Immediately in my mind the word “NATURAL” flashes bright red with a klaxon horn matching each illumination, must like a modern aircraft cockpit warns a pilot of fact over a fiction which he or she may want to believe. But I think for a few moments, trying not to say anything too extreme or absolute. Nothing good ever comes from such a position.

“Well, it’s pretty clear to me that it’s mostly artificial,” I state flatly, carefully leaving room for debate and inclusion. “Although there are a few things that seem suspect!”


The Yonaguni Monument (与那国島海底地形 Yonaguni-jima Kaitei Chikei, “Yonaguni Island Submarine Topography”) is a massive underwater rock and stone structure off the coast of Yonaguni, the southernmost of the Ryukyu Islands of Japan. There remains a debate whether the site is completely natural, is a natural site that has been modified by human hands, or is wholly a man-made artifact. Since there are those who so badly want to believe, often the site is called in Japanese the “Yonaguni (Island) Submarine Ruins” (与那国(島)海底遺跡 Yonaguni(-jima) Kaitei Iseki) in a nod to those wishing for a more interesting explanation.


The Yonaguni Monument divides the masses of people who now visit there, much as it splits the massive ocean flowing by. There are believers and there are skeptics, and not a lot of in-betweens. I didn’t pole our particular tour group to the island; I didn’t want to try and take anyone’s faith away in an idea so grand. And besides, it’s almost impossible to debate people when their strongest evidence is rooted only in faith. Jody I think agrees (mostly) with me.

The idea of a stepped-pyramid is not hard to imagine

The idea of a stepped-pyramid is not hard to imagine

Many if not most scientists note that there is nothing on Yonaguni that can’t be explained by natural processes. Yes, such an explanation is totally pedestrian, but supporting evidence is just too easy to find. Geologists recently have been able to watch, in real-time, typhoons tear away at Yonaguni’s coast and observe how the rock broke apart along horizontal bedding planes, creating level terraces and vertical steps exactly like those found on the Monument. Geologists will also tell you how many rocks, especially those with high mineral content, have incredible regularity, including nearly perfect angles. The contrary argument comes armed with a whole plethora of evidence, including stone tools, post-holes, wedge marks, and incised markings resembling “art.”

Yonaguni Japan 2015, Scuba Diving, Monument, Jody swimming near the steps

People want to believe, of that there is no doubt. The public pop-culture controversy involving the “Yonaguni Monument” is no different. Though of as a submerged man-made rock formation, remnants of a 10,000 year old Japanese civilization, some have even connected it to the “Lost continent of Mu.”

Never heard of the Continent of Mu until going to Yonaguni

Never heard of the Continent of Mu until going to Yonaguni

The site was “discovered” by dive tour operator Kihachiro Aratake in 1985 as he searched for new sites from which to dive with schooling hammerhead sharks (see A JAW-Some Valentines for our shark adventure at Yonaguni!). And the person most responsible for camp of believers in a 10,000 year-old lost civilization of the lost continent Mu is Masaaki Kimura, a marine geologist at the University of Ryukyus. Over the past 15 years, Kimura has come to the conclusion that this monument is most definitely manmade. According to Kimura, the largest structure at the site appears to be a complicated, monolithic, stepped pyramid that rises from a depth of 82 feet. While he claims the structure resembles a ziggurat, a type of vertically stepped structure found throughout Latin American and in the Middle East, such abstract dots are hard for most people to connect in their perhaps more discerning minds.


Some pretty strong leaps of faith in these labels!

And of course there are claims of many additional structures nearby, including a castle, five temple-like structures, and what seems to be a huge stadium, said to be connected by roads and canals…. The cynic in me notes that at one time many if not most people believed the dark lines seen on Mars through early telescopes were clearly roads or canals of a lost yet advanced civilization who once thrived there.


Mu is the name of an almost wholly made-up “lost” continent whose entire concept was proposed by 19th-century traveler and writer Augustus Le Plongeon. He claimed, based on scant evidence that cannot be reconfirmed or reproduced (think of the Mormon tablets), that several ancient civilizations, such as those of Egypt and Mesoamerica, were created by refugees from Mu—which he originally located in the Atlantic Ocean. This concept was popularized in public opinion and expanded by James Churchward, who asserted that Mu was once located in the Pacific…without any real proof to back such claims. Not surprisingly, Mu in modern times is considered to be an entirely fictional place.

Yet, people so badly want to believe….

Stones of the Bimini Road

Stones of the Bimini Road

bimini-mapGrowing up in South Florida in the 1980s, I remember a “discovery” not unlike that of the Yonaguni Monument. The “Bimini Road,” sometimes called the Bimini Wall, is an underwater rock formation near North Bimini Island, part of the Bahamas chain of islands. The “road” consists of a half-mile long northeast-southwest “linear feature” composed of roughly rectangular to “sub-rectangular” (remember the optical illusion discussion above?) limestone blocks. Various claims attest that this feature is a wall, road, pier, breakwater, or some other man-made structure. Even though there’ been extensive research and investigation into this “road,” credible evidence or arguments for a man-made, ancient origin connected to the lost civilization of Atlantis remain largely lacking.

Yet people continue to believe.

The Cliffs over the Monument

The Cliffs over the Monument

Kimura first estimated that the Yonaguni monument must be at least 10,000 years old, dating it to the 9th century, BCE, predating all the other massive buildings of ancient mankind. This assumed the site was created when it was last dry land during the last Ice Age, a date incongruous with our accepted modern understanding of the spread and development of ancient peoples. In 2007, partly to avoid this rather bothersome problem, he revised his age estimate to 2,000 to 3,000 years ago, more in line with the history of mankind in the region, but a time when sea level then was close to current levels as we experience now. To still allow for the idea of human involvement, he now suggests that after construction above the ocean, earthquakes and other associated tectonic activity submerged the structures to where we find them today. While most scientists, archeologists and anthropologists think all of this rather unlikely, Kimura, who so badly wants to believe, further claims beyond the multiple structures that he can identify, he himself now surmises that the site may be a remnant of the mythical lost continent of Mu, an idea already rooted in dubious origin as discussed above.

I barely had a cell phone signal!

I barely had a cell phone signal!

The existence of an ancient stone working tradition at Yonaguni and other Ryukyu islands is demonstrated by sold tombs and several stone vessels of uncertain age. However, pottery, stone tools and large fireplaces found on Yonaguni are dated only as far back as 2500 BCE. Further, these communities were small and most likely found it very difficult to eke out an existence; such ancient settlements almost certainly lacked the resources, manpower and extra time and energy for building such massive stone monuments.

model of yonaguni  discovery channel magazine   for Voices of the Rocks article

It’s not unfair to say that Kimura has become obsessed with the Yonaguni Monument since first visiting. I’m convinced that at that over time he came to his own personal emotional conclusions, rather than using anything resembling the scientific method to investigate what are really extraordinary claims. He founded the Marine Science and Cultural Heritage Research Association, an organization devoted to proving that the Yonaguni Monument is not merely the natural formation it appears to be to so many, but rather a manmade structure, consisting of a huge network of buildings, castles, monuments, a stadium, and other structures, all connected by an elaborate system of roads and waterways.


This is exactly the kind of manmade mystery that people love! And the news and mass media of all types have run with the dubious story, trumpeting Kimura’s discovery with clichés like “Scholars mystified” (they really are not), “underwater city” (yet to be proven), and “Japanese Atlantis” (in a silly nod to the dubious idea of the lost continent of Mu). History’s Mysteries on the History Channel produced “Japan’s Mysterious Pyramids,” (I didn’t see any “pyramid” on my dives there) an episode which promoted the idea of a long-lost advanced civilization, but with almost no critique or balanced reporting. And worse, the show Ancient Discoveries aired an episode called “Lost Cities of the Deep,” featuring Yonaguni. And both the BBC and the Discovery Channel have produced loose “documentaries” promoting a rather one-sided view of the Yonaguni Monument as having a mystifying manmade past. And if it’s on TV it must be right, RIGHT?!?

What TV Wants you to Believe

What TV Wants you to Believe

What the Face Really Turned out to Be

What the Face Really Turned out to Be

What People Wanted to Believe about Mars....

What People Wanted to Believe about Mars….

A case-in-point for me personally is the Yonaguni “Face.” Conspiracy theorists love to lock onto the idea of a face carved into the stone of the monument. The face, or “Jacques’ Eyes” as it is sometimes called (named after Jacques Mayol who used to freedive the site), appears on a large round-ish boulder, and consists of two depressions near where eyes might be, but it certainly in no way even remotely resembles a carved head. Examining photographs of the Jacques’ Eyes formation, I remain far from convinced the eyes were carved. They’re large concave depressions without distinct edges, not eye shaped, not symmetrical, misaligned, and not convex like an eyeball. Even an incompetent artist would have done a far better job if eyes were the goal! Even Kimura doesn’t go so far to presume it is a human head or face, even though he does claim that the “eyes” were indeed carved by hand. This whole idea is just way too reminiscent of the “Face on Mars,” which of course turned out to be simply Venus and Zeus playing with celestial light against natural formations. But people so want to believe, right?

The "Face" of Jacques' "Eyes"!

The “Face” of Jacques’ “Eyes”!

We did manage to find Nessie!

We did manage to find Nessie!

Yes, even for me, a believer in science and (naughty) skeptic by nature, I too at times want to believe. I’m addicted to “Finding Sasquatch,” used to search the skies for UFOs while flying and at sea during my time in the Navy, and I actively taunt ghosts wherever they are claimed to lurk in the hopes of having a personal paranormal experience. But alas, to date, nothing out of the ordinary has really happened to me, other than an exciting life well-lived!


Unfortunately, my beliefs don’t extend to the Yonaguni Monument. And it appears I’m not the only skeptic when it comes to Dr. Kimura’s bedrock interpretation. Virtually every marine geologists who have seen the pictures are perfectly satisfied that the formations as-is are fully consistent with those that occur naturally, both on and around Yonaguni, in addition to other parts of the world. Yes, the site is impressive and unusually dramatic, and yes, there are features that make divers do a double-take, but seriously, I quickly came to the conclusion that what we were diving on, over and through was not the work of man, but the hand of god…meaning Mother Nature at her artistic finest. The only thing that made me stop and really consider the possible manmade origins of the monument was initially the triangle of the “Turtle,” but even those hopes were dashed as described above.

Yonaguni Japan 2015, Scuba Diving, Monument, me swimming along the terraces

At the end of the day, here will be those who believe the Monument is natural, until a “smoking-gun” can be provided as evidence to the otherwise. And there will be true believers, whose faith remains strong, even in the face of mounting evidence contrary to their belief. Sasquatch, the Shroud of Turin, the recent supposed photos of naked aliens running around Mars…. They all point to the same thing: that part of the human condition is wanting so badly that there is more to life that what there just appears to be.  Me – all the cosmic mystery I need as I sit here and work on the final draft of this blog is the purring love of my cat Cleo.  There is no greater proof of the power of life than the tangible bonds we share as part of nature.

A Supposed Photo of an Alien Walking on the Moon

A Supposed Photo of an Alien Walking on the Moon; Do You Believe?

We make it back to dive the Monument one more time. The steep forbidding gothic cliffs above, the eight story tall stone giant below. Again there is awe at the world’s amazing wonders, and yes, even creeping doubt. But I have to conclude, sadly, that Yonaguni, while a terrific rural example of old-tyme and laid-back Ryukyu life which happens to offer amazing sites for scuba divers, just isn’t the seat of an ancient advanced civilization or the Lost Continent of Mu….

Me and Jody Posing on the Monument's Main Terrace

Me and Jody Posing on the Monument’s Main Terrace

Yonaguni Japan 2015, Scuba Diving, Monument, peaeceful Jody WM


For more information, and for sources used in creating this blog, please see the following:

Chang, K. “The Formosa Strait in the Neolithic Period.” Kaogu. 1 Jun. 1989, Number 6: 541-550, 569.

Hudson, M., Takamiya, H. “Dental pathology and subsistence change in late prehistoric Okinawa.” Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association. 1 Jan. 2001, Volume 21: 68-76.

Jiao, T. Lost Maritime Cultures: China and the Pacific. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 2007.

Kimura, M. “Yonaguni.” Marine Science and Cultural Heritage Research Association. Dr. Masaaki Kimura, 24 Oct. 2007. Web. 20 Aug. 2010.

Milne, G., Long, A., Bassett, S. “Modelling Holocene relative sea-level observations from the Caribbean and South America.” Quaternary Science Reviews. 1 Jan. 2005, Volume 24, Numbers 10-11: 1183-1202.

Schoch, R. “An Enigmatic Ancient Underwater Structure off the Coast of Yonaguni Island, Japan.” Circular Times. Dr. Colette M. Dowell, 19 Apr. 2006. Web. 20 Aug. 2010.

Dunning, B. “Yonaguni Monument: The Japanese Atlantis.” Skeptoid Podcast. Skeptoid Media, Inc., 24 Aug 2010. Web. 22 Feb 2015.