“Excellence is an art won by training and habituation. We do not act rightly because we have virtue or excellence, but we rather have those because we have acted rightly. We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act but a habit.” ~Aristotle
Okinawa, as well as the wider Pacific basin (Korea, Japan and Hawaii, in terms of the Marine Corps at least), is going through a temporary ban/prohibition on recreational water activities. Due in part to the drowning deaths of two Marines this past weekend, but certainly exacerbated by other deaths and numerous serious permanent injuries from earlier in the year. The Commanding General here in Okinawa says it isn’t punitive – but it is. And the stand-down is supposed to be about “resetting” the force to help improve water safety so that we all can better and more safely enjoy the water sports for which Okinawa is famous…which it doesn’t.
Don’t get me wrong: these deaths are tragic, and tragically preventable. I am not belittling any person’s life, nor calling into question that something needs to be done to help keep similar mishaps like these from happening in the future. But hey Navy-Marine Corps Team: you’re doing it wrong.
Here’s what happens when the military powers-that-be on Okinawa ban or prohibit some activity because there is an issue. First, the literally tens of thousands of people that enjoy the waters around Okinawa on a weekly, and for some, almost daily basis, are marginalized, ignored, and otherwise lumped en mass with the few who are cause for concern. There is NO DOUBT that preventable deaths are a sad, unnecessary and tragic occurrence. But for the common Marine, Airman, Soldier or Airman, to take away their access to the water though no fault of their own is, well, punitive. All it takes is a scan of the Facebook comments to see evidence of this conclusion firsthand. In fact, the people that actually are doing everything RIGHT – the vast number of people affected by this order I argue -are lumped into the masses, and made to suffer some attempt at remediation. We will get to how badly that remediation is being implemented in this case down below.
Second, subordinate commands can jerk the chain even further. For instance, for MCCS Scuba Programs, even pool events/training were placed off-limits during this stand-down, with the explicit threat of immediate termination if a student was allowed to enter the water, any water, for any reason. Are pools really the issue? Are people getting hurt in the pools? Are we worried about the safety of pools or the events that take place there? Some people on this island have to make special arrangements to take a scuba diving class. Some take leave. Others have to clear duty schedules. Still others have to coordinate work releases and/or baby-sitting. Canceling the ability to train, specifically in a setting where a real difference can/could be made considering the subject and intent of the stand-down, is, well, punitive to some and counterproductive to most.
Further, MCCS Scuba was required to do an immediate 100% accountability recall of rental gear, a requirement expressed to staff and contractors with some sense of urgency. The fact was made very clear that the shops were required to account for every single regulator and buoyancy control device. Was this the Commander’s intent? Whose “good idea” was this? I’ve read the Commander’s intent, and nowhere is this type of reaction warranted, or required by any sort of evidence-based practice. Are we really that worried about people sneaking off to go scuba diving? If so, what about all those people with their own tanks and gear….
Then there’s the stand-down “training.” It is, of course, a PowerPoint. And of course it was created in mere hours, based on existing (and lame) water safety products already readily available. If you haven’t reviewed this training brief, please do so now. Actually, although I have the brief, it is classified “For Official Use Only,” and while not a “real” classification, it would be in very bad form to place it in this public domain. So, my apologies, but you won’t be able to see what all of Okinawa will be forced to view. This particular briefing is one which is being promulgated on the “Green Side” (US Marine Corps), and it simply and completely misses the mark. In retrospect, I’m actually happy you the reader won’t view the training – saves me the embarrassment.
So, let’s cut to the chase…and get right to the point.
Preventing these fatalities and other water-related mishaps are NOT a matter of sitting through yet another poorly conceived and even more poorly constructed PowerPoint briefing, delivered poorly by someone lacking the requisite knowledge and expertise to speak intelligently about the very real and very serious issues at hand. IT IS A MATTER OF CHANGING THE CULTURE OF WATER RECREATION SAFETY ON OKINAWA.
I’m not saying that a safety stand-down is unwarranted or inappropriate. Quite the opposite; we used them effectively in Naval Aviation when I was a flier. What I am saying is that in the modern age of intrusive military leadership, documented training in a CYA-mode along with additional layers of micromanagement and oversight, such unfocused and irrelevant “training” is counterproductive. Judgment is an exceedingly hard thing to just “train” into people. Paradigm and cultural shifts take a level of effort orders of magnitude beyond more GMT (general military training).
The training provided, from an examination of its content, focuses primarily on THREE things: Okinawa “Sea Conditions,” dangerous marine life, and rip currents. That’s right – little about experience, almost nothing about wearing of personal flotation, no push for training and certification (not just for divers, but snorkelers as well), and finally, almost nothing on how to mitigate and handle growing anxiety and near-panic in the water….
Having been a diver on Okinawa now for over seven years, and being a PADI Professional for about six of those years (and a diver for 25), I can tell you that I have only heard of (but cannot confirm) one American fatality from dangerous marine life, and that was due to anaphylactic shock from a sea wasp sting, and not from drowning (I believed this occurred on/about 1999). This brief would have you believe that Moray eels and even Barracuda are out for blood. Fully seven of the brief’s 30 slides – ¼ of the brief when you take out the intro and ending slides – are dedicated to marine life, which to my knowledge, have absolutely nothing to do with serious water-related injuries or fatalities this year…or in the last three. Talk about detractors??? Again, what is causing the water-related deaths and injuries on Okinawa? What are the chains in these mishaps that we can keep from being broken?? MOST CERTAINLY NOT DANGEROUS MARINE LIFE. Oh, and marine life is only potentially dangerous, mind you….
Second, there seems to be a concentration of content on rip currents (8 of 30 slides). I’m not sure the genesis of this focus. If there was/were rip currents involved in recent fatalities, THEN SAY SO. I, for one, find this hard to believe, although it cannot be ruled out. Again, being an experienced diver on Okinawa, with something like 1,000 dives throughout the island, I have found VERY FEW true rip currents here. And even those, like ones at the “old” Onna Point, Sunny’s Sunabe, Water Treatment, and Hedo Point are dependent on tide phase and change, along with various aspects of sea state (wave height, direction and period). Training people on what to do if caught in a rip current is not a bad thing, and in Southern California or parts of Florida, a necessary thing. However, are the photos of the purported rips in the brief even from Okinawa??? Remember, undertow and surge are NORMAL aspects of increased surf, and should not be confused with rip currents….
Finally, the long, verbatim discussion on Sea Conditions (4 of 30 slides, extremely wordy) begs people to yawn and check Facebook on their cell phones. Let’s be honest: there is a rampant lack of respect for Okinawa’s Sea Condition, the people who set it, and the criteria that it’s based on. I cannot even begin to numerate how many times the meteorologists have jumped the shark when it comes to actual water conditions versus published condition. It is a common joke across the island. Sometimes they under-report how bad things really are; other and maybe more often, they over-restrict access to the water when completely unwarranted. I feel so strongly about how ineffectual Sea Condition is that it has its own dedicated blog; see Surf Nazis Must Die! Keep in mind that most mishaps happen when in “all clear” or “caution,” sea conditions that do not preclude any in-water activity.
Where is this discussion in this training on the absolute necessity of personal flotation, not just when scuba diving, but when snorkeling, especially in water too deep to stand, REGARDLESS OF SEA CONDITION? Where is the emphasis on gaining proper experience? But that in and of itself still isn’t enough: where is the much needed discussion on MAINTAINING PROFICIENCY?? Having insider information on recent events on Okinawa, I can tell you with a high degree of certainty that lack of PFDs combined with inexperience and lack of proficiency were direct contributors to very unfavorable outcomes….
Where is the discussion in this training on whether the mishap persons in question inflated their flotation or not (if they were even wearing any)? Was gear in place – mask and snorkel? Where regulators used during questionable surf entries/exits? Did the mishap scuba diver inflate their BCDs? Did the mishap scuba diver drop weights? Did those attempting a rescue ensure positive buoyancy for the victim and themselves? Did rescuers drop the mishap scuba-diver’s weights? Was emergency oxygen available and utilized? These are all critical elements which could (but not necessarily so), improve the chances for a more favorable outcome.
Where is the discussion in this training that it’s not enough to have the appropriate gear, but to wear and use that gear? When encountering any questionable surf on entry or exit, mask must be on and reserve air in the scuba cylinder should be utilized by using the kit’s regulator. Further, how many divers really understand that in moderate-to-heavy surf on scuba that at times it is much better to DEFLATE completely to keep surge from throwing divers about?
Where is the discussion in this training on how important it is to calm yourself the moment you begin to feel anxiety in the water? About being familiar and experienced enough with your gear (assuming you are wearing it) to utilize it when it is absolutely necessary? Panic is a killer in the water, even at the surface, and as far as I can tell, these last three fatalities all happened at the surface, and were almost certainly preceded by full-blown panic.
Then there are the training’s misguided “Takeaways.” From the brief one would assume that rip currents and dangerous marine life would be highlighted. But they aren’t. Instead, one takeaway incorrectly says to “go with your instincts”! Instinctively people will go into water which they are not prepared for!!! Only training and experience can overcome “instinct.” Another points out that alcohol and water activities don’t mix: IS THERE SOMETHING WE SHOULD KNOW HERE?? Or, is this just yet another plug to “not drink and [fill in the blank]….” Yet another take-away is adherence to the buddy rule, always a great idea, but did a loose interpretation of the buddy team concept result in or contribute to one of these mishaps??? These are the things that we all need to know. In the brief’s defense, it does on the final slide talk about training and equipment, but only in summary.
What are my takeaways, and what would I tell people if I had an audience, or were even invited to have input in water-safety training? I would say this:
- There is absolutely no substitute for comprehensive, quality training, for boating, personal watercraft, snorkel, scuba, and swim.
- Training & Experience win over instinct every time.
- There is absolutely no reason to disregard required equipment.
- There is absolutely a need to build personal first-hand experience, both in numbers (repeated exposure) and over time (exposure to a wide variety of environments/conditions).
- There is absolutely a need to maintain proficiency; swim, snorkel and scuba skills are perishable, especially for novices experiencing a long lay-off.
- Emergency Procedures must be practiced in order for them to be effective, especially with new and/or unfamiliar dive buddies.
- The “10 Second Rule” is not enough: waves come in trains, and ten second is not long enough to properly assess a situation. A decision NOT TO DIVE can be concluded within 10 seconds. However, if after 10 seconds the conditions seem okay, continue to monitor the site for a FULL MINUTE. Only then can wave trains be properly accounted for, along with wave period and extent of surge.
- Utilize all gear when in moderate-to-high surf, which includes keeping masks on, and having a mouthpiece in mouths (preferably a regulator/air source).
- The moment increased anxiety is felt, STOP & BREATH; focus and get control of your breathing before thinking about necessary actions. Loss of breath control contributes quickly to panic and water aspiration, a combination that is deadly.
- There is absolutely a need to change the culture of assumed personal invincibility over the oceans to one of exercised personal responsibility for your own safety – your safety is your responsibility, yours and yours alone.
Finally, in order to change the culture of water safety in Okinawa, it’s going to take engagement with all those that have the most impact and the most visibility: swim coaches and instructors, snorkel and scuba instructors and store staffs, and even boat/watercraft renters and operators. From my standpoint, and here I believe I may speak for many, there is almost zero engagement with the wider community of professionals, who all stand willing, able and ready to help make a change. Outside of a few select individuals from a couple of the military dive shops, the community of professional divers is largely unleveraged in this regard.
What can be systemically done? Push for additional training. One way would be subsidies to bring the cost of relevant training down, training which could/may include snorkel/skin diver certifications through the dive shops, Advanced Open Water dive training, and even Rescue dive training. Another business model could use additional revenue generated from a price increase for entry-level dive programs that would be used to offset these other courses. Currently, only 7% of my annual certifications are for Rescue.
For me, personally, the best I can do at this point is through each and every class that I instruct, and each and every dive that I lead or attend. I have, in the last year, added buoyancy and mask skills to every single class, and in the last months, have added an increased emphasis on sea state/ dive site evaluation and entry & exit safety. Because, based on my own root cause analysis of mishaps (albeit based on very little and all unofficial information since little is shared with the wider community), these elements are exactly that critical.
Until there is a more reasonable, grounded and holistic approach to improving water safety, by engaging all stakeholders and customers alike, we will seldom make progress given the status quo of punitive restrictions and yet another ineffectual PowerPoint briefing. “Are we done yet,” I hear you say as you yawn and put down your cell. Yes, yes we are. Now hopefully you can be done standing around and finally go back in the water.